The key statistics required for all developmental outcomes is the population of a geographical unit that forms the basis of policy formulation, planning, decision-making, resource allocation at the federal, provincial, district and other tiers of the government and serves as a benchmark.

Population has long been recognized as one of the most important factors in the development process. Population growth patterns are linked to nearly every matter confronting humanity, including poverty reduction, urban pollution, education, energy production, food and water scarcity, health and public finances.

Since independence of this country, five Population Censuses have been conducted. First decennial Population Census of Pakistan was conducted during the period from 9th to 28th February 1951, the second from 12th to 31st, January 1961, the third from 16th to 30th September 1972, the fourth from 1st March to 15th March 1981 and the fifth from 2nd March to 18 March 1998.